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Tritium water dating

A nuclide is a species of an atom with a specific number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus, for example carbon-13 with 6 protons and 7 neutrons.

For example, carbon-12, carbon-13 and carbon-14 are three isotopes of the element carbon with mass numbers 12, 13 and 14 respectively.

The atomic number of carbon is 6, which means that every carbon atom has 6 protons, so that the neutron numbers of these isotopes are 6, 7 and 8 respectively.

The neutron number has large effects on nuclear properties, but its effect on chemical properties is negligible for most elements.

Even in the case of the lightest elements where the ratio of neutron number to atomic number varies the most between isotopes it usually has only a small effect, although it does matter in some circumstances (for hydrogen, the lightest element, the isotope effect is large enough to strongly affect biology).

Curie · Skłodowska-Curie · Davisson · Fermi · Hahn · Jensen · Lawrence · Mayer · Meitner · Oliphant · Oppenheimer · Proca · Purcell · Rabi · Rutherford · Soddy · Strassmann · Szilárd · Teller · Thomson · Walton · Wigner The three naturally-occurring isotopes of hydrogen.

The number of protons within the atom's nucleus is called atomic number and is equal to the number of electrons in the neutral (non-ionized) atom.

The term isotopes (originally also isotopic elements).

However, because isotope is the older term, it is better known than nuclide, and is still sometimes used in contexts where nuclide might be more appropriate, such as nuclear technology and nuclear medicine.

From left to right, the isotopes are protium ( Isotopes are variants of a particular chemical element which differ in neutron number.

The fact that each isotope has one proton makes them all variants of hydrogen: the identity of the isotope is given by the number of neutrons.

The lab's staff work together in research to refine the use of groundwater dating techniques and to develop new groundwater dating methods.